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Axle and Diff information

Some useful articles on doing it yourself
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Axle and Diff information

Postby BenHur » Wed Jan 07, 2009 5:17 pm

Seeing that we did discuss this ages ago and the questions come up again but the original posts get lost in the volumes on the forum I am starting this as a new sticky.

Import / Toyota Axle:

It was found on 4x4 Hiluxes up to about 92
It does not have a inspection lid on the rear of the pumpkin thus to inspect the diff or crown wheel the complete 3rd member must be removed from the front.
The side shafts are thicker and insert into the diff with 30 splines.
They are generally regarded as stronger.
Locker options include:
-ARB
-Lockrite
-Detroit
-Azzie locker
-Toyota Electric Locker

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Local / Gearmax axle:
It is found on South African Hiluxes from about 92/3 up to now.
It does have a inspection lid on the rear of the pumpkin thus the diff or crown wheel can be inspected from the rear without removing the complete 3rd member.
The side shafts are thinner and insert into the diff with 27 splines
They are generally regarded as not as strong as the Import ones.

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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby BenHur » Wed Jan 07, 2009 5:25 pm

Thi info I copied from a article I did long ago.

In this article, I will discuss the 2 main types of axles in use in 4x4 vehicles today namely solid axles and independent axles. There are also a third type in use called portal axles but this configuration is used seldom, normally only in off-road trucks like the Mercedes Unimog truck, but I will not discuss them as they are not really relevant to the target audience of this article.

In all vehicles, the driving wheels are attached to axles that facilitate power delivery to the wheels. Most vehicles’ axles contain a differential in the centre of the axle to allow the differences in rotational speeds between the left and right wheels to be absorbed or cancelled out. This difference in speeds occur when the vehicle does not move in a straight line and the wheel inside the turn move slower due to a shorter path travelled compared to the outer wheel that travels a longer path.

Image

The Differential is the centre portion of the axle and contains the following components:

Image

The casing that holds all the pieces intact is called the diff carrier (G)

On imported differentials the triangular piece at the bottom of the picture including the diff mechanism (carrier, gears, pinion and bearings) can screw loose separately and this is called the 3rd-member.

The input shaft is called the pinion (A) and the gear at the end is called the pinion gear (B)

The rotation from the prop shaft that is connected to the pinion rotates the pinion gear which in turn drives the ring gear or crown wheel (C)

Attached to the crown wheel is the spider gears or sometimes called planetary gears (D)

The spider gears in turn drive the side gears and this is the heart of the differential system. This setup will allow rotational speed differences to be absorbed or cancelled out by the spider gears. If both wheels rotate at the same speed, then the spider gears stand still and the side gears and crown wheel turn in unison. A differential lock can be installed into the carrier which will lock the side gears and crown wheel together and will cause equal power transfer to both wheels, if one of them were to loose traction.

Read the article on http://auto.howstuffworks.com/differential.htm which explains differentials in more detail.

Check out these cool animations which show a differential while the vehicle is driving straight and when it is turning

http://static.howstuffworks.com/flash/differential.swf

The side gears drive the wheels via the side shafts. There are a few diff configurations in use.

The first is a solid rear axle also called a rear beam axle and does not have any rotational joints attached to the side shafts .

Image

The side shaft covers or beams (H), the centre portion, also referred to as the pumpkin, and the wheel hubs (K) are one solid piece.


The next configuration is a solid front axle or front beam axle.

Image

In this case the beams and the pumpkin is still a solid unit but at the ends there are swivel hubs that allows the steering wheels in front of the vehicle to be turned left or right.

In order to facilitate this turning movement in the side shaft while it is rotating, rotational joints (J) are placed at the ends of the side shafts and connects the stub axles to the side shafts. These joints can either be universal joints as used in DANA axles, Birfield joints as used in the Toyota solid front axles or constant velocity (CV) joints as used in most vehicles with independent front or rear suspension

The next configuration is a independent rear axle

Image

In this configuration, the hubs and side shafts move independently from the pumpkin that is fixed to the vehicle, so it remains stationary while the wheels and side shafts move independently.

To be able to achieve this, two rotational joints (normally CV joints) are placed at the ends of the side shaft. The inner CV (I) connects the side shaft to the diff and the Outer CV (J) connects the side shaft to the sub axle.

In this configuration the side shafts are often exposed.


The next configuration is an independent front axle

Image

The independent front axle works just as the independent rear axle, except that it also have swivel hubs at the ends like the solid front axle to facilitate steering of the vehicle.
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby jakeslouw » Thu Jan 08, 2009 1:41 am

Thanks, Bennie.

Can you clarify on the which Lux's had which diff ratio and why?

(I understand that the 2.2 had the 4.88:1 diffs, but didn't the 2.8D have 4.1:1 or something?)

I need a SFA with a 4.1:1 ratio, and I don't know if such an animal was sold as standard.
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby BenHur » Thu Jan 08, 2009 5:39 am

Hmm Dunno the ratios of the different models, someone else might have to help here.

Calling Professor Simon Morris or Professor Blommie who else might know?
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Kaspaas » Thu Jan 08, 2009 7:24 am

Dankie Bennie, dit was nou baie handig, maar net soos Jakes daar vra, sal ek ook wil weet wat die ratios op die veskillende modelle en import teenoor local.
As ek reg verstaan het jy ook n local diff ne? met n G-max difflock? enige probleme al. tot n mate is ek bly ek die local diff, ek soek n selekteerbare lock, en kani n ARB bekostig vir n import diff nie, maar sien kans vir n Gearmax in n local diff.
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Hilux Diff Ratios 1999 Series

Postby Family_Dog » Thu Jan 08, 2009 9:07 am

According to my brochure on the first IFS models, the following details are provided:


DOUBLE CAB:
2700i LWB 4x4 Raider: 4.556
3000D LWB 4x4 Raider: 4.875
3000D LWB 4x2 raised Body Raider: 4.875
2700i LWB 4x4 SRX: 4.556
2000 LWB 4x2 SR: 4.111


SINGLE CAB 4x4 & 4x2 RAISED BODY:
2700i LWB 4x4 R/B Raider: 4.556
2700i LWB 4x4 Raider: 4.556
3000D LWB 4x2 R/B Raider: 4.875
2700i LWB 4x4: 4.556
3000D LWB 4x4: 4.556
3000D LWB 4x2 R/B: 4.556


SINGLE CAB 4x2
2000 LWB 4x2 SR: 4.111
2000 LWB 4x2: 4.111
2400D LWB 4x2: 4.111
2400D SWB 4x2: 4.111
1800 SWB 4x2: 4.556


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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Family_Dog » Thu Jan 08, 2009 9:08 am

jakeslouw wrote:Thanks, Bennie.

Can you clarify on the which Lux's had which diff ratio and why?

(I understand that the 2.2 had the 4.88:1 diffs, but didn't the 2.8D have 4.1:1 or something?)

I need a SFA with a 4.1:1 ratio, and I don't know if such an animal was sold as standard.


The 2.2 DC featured in the SA 4x4 Road test of the 1992 Raider (refer the Road Test here: http://www.hilux4x4.co.za/views/viewtopic.php?f=44&t=2109 ) stated the final drive as being 4.875:1.

Have no idea about the Diesel models. Has anyone perhaps got more road tests of the older Hilux's that we can include here?

I have posted some info regarding the first IFS series Final drive ratios above



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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Piesang » Fri Jan 09, 2009 8:43 am

Jis Bennie nou is ek so happy soos 'n chappy :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol:

Ek het gaan kyk na die ilistrasie van die diff en vir die eerstekeer in my lewe verstaan ek hoe 'n voortuig se dif werk :clap: :clap: :clap:

Maar wil nog weet hoekom 'n 4x4 se voor en agter diffs nie die selfde is nie :?: of :o: het ek dit mis gelees hier bo :?:
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby jakeslouw » Fri Jan 09, 2009 9:39 am

Hey Piesang, ja die diffs issie dieselfde nie, een is voor en een is agter! :lol: :lol: :lol:

Nee, eintlik wil ek weet wat jy bedoel met jou vraag: wil jy weet hoekom die Solid Front Axle diff nie soos die agter diff lyk nie?
Of wil jy weet hoekom die Independent Front Suspension diff nie lyk soos die agter diff nie?
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Piesang » Fri Jan 09, 2009 9:43 am

:lol: :lol: :lol:
Nee ek verstaan dit dalk verkeerd :oops: , maar ek lees gereeld dat julle praat van voor en agter rat verhoudings wat nie die selfde is nie. :think: Wat bedoel julle met dit :?: .
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby jakeslouw » Fri Jan 09, 2009 10:01 am

Pieter,

As die voor en agter diff rat verhoudings nie diselfde is nie, dan het of Toyota of die vorige eienaar *a* aangejaag! :o:
Op 'n 4x4 moet die voor- en agter-diffs dieselfde ratverhouding he^, anders is dit logical dat as jy in 4x4 ry met die transfer boks in 4H of 4L, sal die wiele op een diff vinniger draai as die wiele op die ander diff. Dit veroorsaak "drive train wind up": hierdie opwen kan jou dryfaste (propshafts) en diffs beskadig en breek. "Wind up" gebeur ook op standaard voertuie, maar net effens en net in sekere omstandighede, en die "wind up" word ge-normaliseer deur effense "wheel spin".
Ou Land Rover Series voertuie met die dun side-shafts en min splines op die shafts het gereeld side-shafts gebreek a.g.v hierdie opwen van die komponente: LR het toe later groter side-shafts ingesit, en toe ook gegaan vir 'n "centre diff" by die transfer boks wat die opwen tussen voor en agter diffs kon normaliseer. Dis hoekom 1984 en aan Discoverys, Range Rovers en Defenders permanent 4WD kon loop. Dis ook hoekom 'n Defender met voor en agter lockers omtrent onstuitbaar is: die middel diff kan ook gesluit word.

Die wind-up is ook een van die redes hoekom jy NOOIT jou voor hubs moet sluit en 4x4 moet loop op teer paaie nie: niks wheel-spin en ne^rens waar die wind-up kan gaan nie......neuk ten minste jou bande op, en sal jou prop-shafts en diffs beskadig.
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Piesang » Fri Jan 09, 2009 11:01 am

Jakes dankie dis hoe ek ook geredeneer het en nie kon verstaan dat iemand praat van voor en agter verskul nie. Het toe net gereken dal gebruik hul voor 'n kleiner pinon as met minder rattande as agter en dan moet die ander daarby aanpas. Dan sou ek wou weet hoekom dunner voor as agter, maar nou kanseleer dit uit dankie.
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby blom » Fri Jan 09, 2009 7:35 pm

Net gou ietsie op toy diffs
Die 4.88 soos oubaas eric se is 2.2 en 2.4
Sterk S/S hafts die import diff het ons die pinions se nekke omgedraai(klein pinions wat hom swak maak)
crownweel diameter 8" daarvandaan die bynaam toy8"
Die gearmax toy was nooit 'n opsie (alles breek somme gelyk)
Die ring en pinions kan net met 4.88 verfang word(niks anders pas)

4.56 was en is nog altyd die ultimate om in die hande te kry.
hier het jy die opsie om aftermarket ratios te kry(van die US) jip die cariers verskil van die 4.88

4.1 is hengse skaars en as jy hom kry, soek eers vir die voor as met 'n 4.1 ratio alvorens jy opgewonde raak

die gearmax M77 diff is beter as die toy gearmax diff S/S is effe sterker en die ratios is dieselfde(kom uit 'n isuzu)
Die ultimate vir toy is egter diue nuwe Colt bakkie se agteras Ratio is 4,876 en die crownweel is 9" (lekke sterk)
maar die geheim is in die colt S/Shafts (bosbere) al en al is dit die beste roep (cheap) en hy kom standaar met factory locker
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Thabogrobler » Sun Jan 11, 2009 9:03 pm

blom wrote:Net gou ietsie op toy diffs
Die 4.88 soos oubaas eric se is 2.2 en 2.4
Sterk S/S hafts die import diff het ons die pinions se nekke omgedraai(klein pinions wat hom swak maak)
crownweel diameter 8" daarvandaan die bynaam toy8"
Die gearmax toy was nooit 'n opsie (alles breek somme gelyk)
Die ring en pinions kan net met 4.88 verfang word(niks anders pas)

4.56 was en is nog altyd die ultimate om in die hande te kry.
hier het jy die opsie om aftermarket ratios te kry(van die US) jip die cariers verskil van die 4.88

4.1 is hengse skaars en as jy hom kry, soek eers vir die voor as met 'n 4.1 ratio alvorens jy opgewonde raak

die gearmax M77 diff is beter as die toy gearmax diff S/S is effe sterker en die ratios is dieselfde(kom uit 'n isuzu)
Die ultimate vir toy is egter diue nuwe Colt bakkie se agteras Ratio is 4,876 en die crownweel is 9" (lekke sterk)
maar die geheim is in die colt S/Shafts (bosbere) al en al is dit die beste roep (cheap) en hy kom standaar met factory locker
:mrgreen:


My Kz gaan nou omgebou word na 4x4. Sou daar pyne wees met die agterste diff vorentoe, kan ek die Colt se side shafts en/of diff in sit?
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby blom » Mon Jan 12, 2009 7:39 pm

T
die colt S/S sal glad nie in die Luxie pas nie
Maak maar net seker die ratios is reg
gaan jy sfa of ifs?
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Thabogrobler » Mon Jan 12, 2009 11:43 pm

blom wrote:T
die colt S/S sal glad nie in die Luxie pas nie
Maak maar net seker die ratios is reg
gaan jy sfa of ifs?


IFS, moet nog elke dag met hom ry ook...
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'97 22R diff ratios

Postby zepplin » Thu Aug 06, 2009 10:06 am

Can someone please confirm what the standard diff ratios are for this vehicle?

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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby Hoppy » Thu Aug 06, 2009 11:17 am

4.875 or 4.88 as gearmax calls it.

Only the 2.8 diesel had a 4.55 ratio.
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby dalkill » Thu Aug 06, 2009 1:32 pm

so how does one check the GR on your diff.
is there a marking on the diff somewhere?
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby Hoppy » Thu Aug 06, 2009 2:34 pm

You should have a local diff in the back, check at the bottom of the left hand side "web" about 10cm behind the propshaft flange is a red & silver plate with all the details.
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby zepplin » Thu Aug 06, 2009 5:26 pm

Thanks Allan. Can you advise if the import diff also had the same ratios>

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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby Hoppy » Thu Aug 06, 2009 7:38 pm

Ratios are the same, import opens from the front, local from the rear.

All front diffs are import.
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby zepplin » Fri Aug 07, 2009 9:37 am

Thanks.
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby zepplin » Fri Aug 07, 2009 9:41 am

Sorry, one more question. Are the sideshafts interchangeable from import diff to local diff? Do they have the same number of splines? If not, how many splines on the import & how many on the local?

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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby Hoppy » Fri Aug 07, 2009 10:31 am

All sideshafts are different, in size and left to right

Sfa local: 27 Splines

Sfa import: 30 Splines

Ifs local; 29 splines

Ifs import 30 splines
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby zepplin » Fri Aug 07, 2009 11:29 am

Thanks for the info. Much appreciated. Reason for asking is I have a '97 22R with the local diff minus locker. Am about to buy a set of axles & from the pic it looks as if the rear axle is the import. I have a brand new ARB locker I brought in form Oz which I want to fit to the import diff & then install that into the Lux.
On a business note something you might be able to assist with is the leaf spring mounting (front bracket welded to the chassis)on the rear right seems to have been 'squashed' resulting in the vehicle hanging low at the rear right by about 20mm. Is this a simple fix & can you do it?
Cruzer 80 4.2 GX
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Re: '97 22R diff ratios

Postby Hoppy » Fri Aug 07, 2009 4:54 pm

Yes you can contact me on 0 7 2 1 2 9 1 1 6 0
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby username » Sat Aug 08, 2009 7:11 pm

2.4D is 4.875.So you know.
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Sifu-Lux » Sun Jan 10, 2010 3:11 pm

Here is a table I found for decoding all the Toyota axle codes:

Toyota Axle code table 1.JPG
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Okkie Van Wyk » Sun Jan 10, 2010 5:52 pm

Hi al julle slim diff manne

Ek wil graag weet of daar n verskil is tussen die DC/Raider4x4 1998/99 se diff en die van die later 2005/on se diff Ek het gemerk dat die speed sensors op n ander plek sit as met die 1998 model maar die E-locker en die res van die diff lyk op die oog af die selfde

dir rede waarom ek wil weet is omdat ek tans besig is met n totaale drive train replacement na n ongelukkige voorval met n propshaft wat gevaal het en die ratkas sowel as die diff verwoes het "R60 000," later gelukkig dankie vir die insurance hoef ek nie te betaal nie.

ek het net opgemerk dat die ratkas en voor diff van die nuwer generasie hilux 4x4s wel merkbaar verskil in die dat inplaas van offset na regs die nuwer hilux se diff voor offset na links sit en derhalwe die ratkas se transfer-case ook omgekeerd is na links

is daar iemand wat dalk meer inligting kan gee of dit wenslik sal wees om die agter dif van n nuwe gen hilux op n ouer 2.7i raider DC4x4 te gebruik .
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Okkie Van Wyk » Tue Jan 12, 2010 7:47 am

Bump

?????????????
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby BenHur » Tue Jan 12, 2010 8:46 am

Ek dink die man wat jou kan help is Hoppy
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Hoppy » Tue Jan 12, 2010 8:54 am

Die as sal pas, maar met die ratio's gaan daar miskien n probleem wees.
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The trouble with trouble is...it always starts as fun.
The most precious jewels you will ever wear around your neck is the arms of your children...
" I WOULD RATHER SIT ON THE TAILGATE OF MY HILUX WITH A BEER AND A CHOP, WATCHING A FIRE, THAN DINE IN THE BEST RESTAURANT IN TOWN "
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Re: Axle and Diff information

Postby Okkie Van Wyk » Tue Jan 12, 2010 12:06 pm

Kan iemand dalk vir my se of daar i verskil is ?
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1998 Hilux 2.7i D/C 4X4 , 33x12.5x15" HANKOOK M/T
VENI VICI VIDI
I CAME, I SAW, I CONQUERED

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